Battery system development is a multi-step process. It starts with pre-program planning. During this phase, a mission statement and product definition are created. Then, feasibility analyses are conducted to determine the market need and feasibility of the product. After confirming general feasibility, the concept development phase begins. It includes a detailed design of the battery system’s interior and exterior components.
Thermal management is a crucial part of battery system development. It helps in ensuring safe operation and the long service life of cells. In conventional battery systems, cooling requires additional energy, so cooling efficiency is typically below optimum. However, Fraunhofer ISE engineers develop highly efficient cooling concepts and systems. They also optimize cooling systems by using simulation-based processes. In addition, they validate their designs using battery lab data.
The requirements and specifications for a battery system are documented systematically and consistently. This stage of development is essential because battery systems are critical in terms of safety. These requirements are defined through multiple iterations in a series of prototypes. The prototype is called an A-prototype. The second prototype, known as a B-sample, focuses on essential performance characteristics. The third stage is the D-prototype, which validates a complete design and essential production processes.
The development of battery systems requires considerable effort. Aggressive battery usage profiles require extensive efforts in system design and battery management strategy. Experiments have traditionally been used to evaluate the performance of batteries, but the costs and time involved in this approach limit the number of test cases. Experiments also tend to be conservative because of the inherent risks of battery failure modes. An alternative approach is to use battery hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. These models are intended to be accurate and real-time.
User-specific driving behavior can significantly affect a battery system’s long-term cycle life and efficiency. Accurately capturing user-centric real-time driving behaviors is essential for a realistic system design. 21700 For example, aggressive driving can cause the battery to self-heat, leading to substantial degradation of the battery system. Similarly, aggressive driving behaviors also accelerate the battery system’s capacity degradation. These user-centric parameters should be considered when designing battery systems for electric vehicles.
In recent years, advances in battery technology have improved power output, especially in the vehicle and heavy equipment industries. For example, Nikola Motor Co. announced new battery technology in November 2019. Its battery has a higher energy density than its predecessors, enabling it to store more energy per unit weight. Furthermore, the company has eliminated binder material and current collectors, which has improved energy storage.
The development of battery systems has been a complex process. It has many components, each with its unique costs. It is difficult to scale this process to produce a battery in a consistent, reliable manner. Companies must understand the complexity of battery systems and invest the time necessary for their development.